甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行_hahabet网

最新发布

当前位置:首页  房产

房产

甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行

2022-06-18 15:27:10
导读 大家好,小庞来为大家解答以上问题,甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行,甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行很多人还不知道,现在让我们一起来看看吧!...

大家好,小庞来为大家解答以上问题,甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行,甘肃文县:因地质灾害中断的省道206线恢复单向通行很多人还不知道,现在让我们一起来看看吧!

1.Howdoesaninvestigationofsocial-culturalinfl论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2008/9/178:40:00论文作者:未知论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版1.Internationalmarketingingeneralisinfluencedbysocio-cultural,background,religiousbeliefsandcustomswhichcannotbeoverviewed.Theculturaldimensionprovidesthechanceandchallengetomarketers.Sotheinvestigationissignificantwhichwillmakethedecisionaccordinglyandmorecorrectly.Withthefollowingwewillintroducethenecessityindetail.Customisthemostimportantfactorinfluencethemarketing.Infact,successfulmarketingpeoplesawthecloseconnectionbetweencustomandcustomers:thewaytoturnpeopleintocustomersistomakeyourproductpartoftheircustomaryactions.Sometimeswholeindustriesarecreatedaroundacustom(Halloweencostumes)andatothertimes,customsarecreatedaroundaproduct(Valentine’sDaycards).Inbothcases,marketerstookadvantagesofthebasichumanneedforritual.Culturesdistinguishthemselvesbytheirrituals,evenwhentheyshareacommonlanguage.Collectingknowledgeaboutlocalcustomisbestdoneupcloseandfirsthand.Getting“ontheground”informationiswellworththecostthatitmayentail.Ifyourfirsttriptoanewcountryisforthepurposeofsellingaproductratherthaninvestingthepotentialtosellone,youmaybedisappointed.Marketershavetolearnhow,why,andwhenthetargetmarketgoesaboutitsbusinessinordertomakeyourproductfit.Anothershouldbetakenintoconsiderislanguage:Mostoftheworld’snationalboundariesaresetalonglinguisticperimeters.Especiallynames,whichareimportantineverylanguageandformarketers,brandnamesareparamount.Arrivinginanewmarketwithagreatnewproductthat’ssaddledwithabadbrandnamecouldspelldisaster.Evenestablishedinternationalcompanieshaveproblemswiththeirnames:SiemensisrarelyspelledcorrectlyanywherebutGermany,andfewpeopleineastAsiacanpronounceNestleproperty,norcanWesternerspronounceHyundai.Investigationofthelanguagewassurelykeyinnamingtheproduct.Also,thehistorycannotbeneglected.Everycountryandculture,whetherit’sasancientasIndiaorasyoungastheCzechRepublic,hasahistorythatwillgreatlyaffectboththemarketandthemarketer.Understandingthathistorywillenableamarketertoapproachthecultureinamoresubtlemanner,anditwillcertainlycauseanadjustmentofschedule.Ontheotherend,aculturethathasbeenmarkedbyindependenceforsometimewillhavefewfearsofforeignoperationsandmayfindthesubtleapproachfartoolacklusterandslow.Marketersmaybringtheirownbusinesstotheprocessandshouldtakecaretoseparatethemselves,atleastemotionally,fromtheirpersonalandculturalhistory.Oftentimes,thisincludesracialprejudicesthataredifficulttoshake,earlierpoliticaldisagreementsthathaveneverbeenfullysettled,ofoldunhealedwarwounds.Moreover,whenenteringtheforeigntherewillbemanyotheraspectsshouldbelearned,suchasreligion,thefamily,theeducationect.Theinvestigationoftheculturedimensionwillprovideinsightsforthemanagers,andthentheywilldealwiththebusinesseasilyandappropriately.Insomecases,itrunsalonggenderlines.Generallyspeaking,theinvestigationofsocia-culturalinfluenceswillbenefitthethemarketing:engageyourknow-howtoincreasesecurity;getimportantdetailstoreachyourmostimportantprospectivecustomers;reduceyourcostsforgoodscreditsandhence:increaseyourprofit.Themanagersneedtoputgreatemphasisontheinvestigation.2.Entrymodel(think2differententrymodel)inadditiontoevaluating2alternativemarketentrymodes.Alsodiscussthefactorsthatinfluenceaffirmschoicebetweenthealternative.Thereareavarietyofkindstoenteranothermarket,thesimplestformofentrystrategyisexporting,andmorecomplexformsincludetrulyglobaloperationswhichmayinvolvejointventures.ThefollowingwillintroducejointventureandFDI,alsocomparethedifferencebetweenthem.JointventuresJointventurescanbedefinedas"anenterpriseinwhichtwoormoreinvestorsshareownershipandcontroloverpropertyrightsandoperation".Jointventuresareamoreextensiveformofparticipationthaneitherexportingorlicensing.Therearefivecommonobjectivesinajointventure:marketentry,risk/rewardsharing,technologysharingandjointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefitsincludepoliticalconnectionsanddistributionchannelaccessthatmaydependonrelationships.Thekeyissuestoconsiderinajointventureareownership,control,lengthofagreement,pricing,technologytransfer,localfirmcapabilitiesandresources,andgovernmentintentions.FDI:Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)isdefinedas“investmentmadetoacquirelastinginterestinenterprisesoperatingoutsideoftheeconomyoftheinvestor.”TheFDIrelationshipconsistsofaparententerpriseandaforeignaffiliatewhichtogetherformatransnationalcorporation.InordertoqualifyasFDItheinvestmentmustaffordtheparententerprisecontroloveritsforeignaffiliate.ForaninvestmenttoqualifyasFDI,physicalcapitalmustbecreatedintheforeigncountry(suchasmanufacturingfacilities,orfactories.)Thisphysicalcapitaliscontrolledbyafirmbasedoutsideofthereceiving,orhostcountry.Foreigndirectinvestmentisconsideredtobeaverystableinvestmentbecauseitinvolvesthecreationofphysicalcapital.FDIisconsideredtobealongterminvestmentbecausephysicalcapitalisnoteasilyliquidated.Comparethetwomodes:ModeJointventuresDirectinvestmentConditionsfavoringthismodeLargeculturalDistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialSomepoliticalriskGovernmentrestrictionsonforeignownershipLocalcompanycanprovideskills,resources,distributionnetwork,brandname,etc,Partners’size,marketpower,andresourcesaresmallcomparedtotheindustryleaders;SmallculturaldistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialLowpoliticalriskAdvantagesOvercomeownershiprestrictionsandculturaldistanceCombinesresourcesof2companiesPotentialforlearningLessinvestmentrequiredSharingofriskandabilityJointfinancialstrengthMaybeonlymeansofentryandThesourceofsupplyforathirdcountry.GreaterknowledgeoflocalmarketCanbetterapplyspecializedskilledCanbeviewedasaninsiderDisadvantagesDifficulttomanageDilutionofcontrolGreaterriskthanexportinga&licensingMaybeimpossibletorecovercapitalDisagreementonthirdpartymarketstoserveHigherriskRequiresmoreresourcesandcommitmentMaybedifficulttomanagethelocalresourcesCase:QuebecorWorldwillprint20billiondirectorypagesayearinMexico,equaltomorethan75percentoftheMexicandirectorymarket.Whichmakeuseofthefollowingtwopoints:FDIbyacquisition;FDIwillincreasecapacity,andcompetitivenessoftarget.Differentmodesofentrymaybemoreappropriateunderdifferentcircumstances,andthemodeofentryisanimportantfactorinthesuccessoftheproject.Ifthepartnerscarefullymapoutinadvancewhattheyexpecttoachieveandhow,thenmanyproblemscanbeovercome.3.Acquisition(largeconsumermanufacture):Introduction:Undertheconditionofmodernenterprisesystemandmarketeconomy,“acquisition”oftenreferstoalegalactforanenterprisetoacquirethecontrolpowerandmanagingpowerofanotherenterprisethroughacertainchannel.Whichisalsoknownasatakeover,isthebuyingofonecompany(the‘target’)byanother.Anacquisitionmaybefriendlyorhostile.Intheformercase,thecompaniescooperateinnegotiations;inthelattercase,thetakeovertargetisunwillingtobeboughtorthetarget'sboardhasnopriorknowledgeoftheoffer.免费论文下载中Typesofacquisition:Thebuyerbuystheshares,andthereforecontrolsthetargetcompanybeingpurchased.Ownershipcontrolofthecompanyinturnconveyseffectivecontrolovertheassetsofthecompany,butsincethecompanyisacquiredasagoingbusiness;suchtransactioncarriesalloftheliabilitiesaccruedbythatbusinessoveritspastandalloftherisksthatcompanyfacesinitscommercialenvironment.Thebuyerbuystheassetsofthetargetcompany.Thecashthetargetreceivesfromthesell-offispaidbacktoitsshareholders.Suchtransactionleavesthetargetcompanyasanemptyshell.Abuyeroftenstructuresthetransactionasanassetpurchaseto"cherry-pick"theassets.Adisadvantageofthisstructureisthetaxthatmanyjurisdictions.Recently,alongwiththedevelopmentoftheeconomic,thescaleoftheacquisitionbecomesoverwhelmingandthephenomenonmorenormal.ThemainwaysofacquisitionofChineselistedcompaniesbyforeigncapitalarethefollowing:acquisitionbyagreement,acquisitionbyoffer,increasingtoissueBsharetocertainpeople,indirectacquisition,enteringintoChineselistedcompaniesbywayofjoiningtheprocessofchangingstateassetscreditors’rightsintostockinterests,formingChinese-foreignjointventuresandsoon.Basedthebackgroundofeconomicglobalization,acquisitionofChineseenterprisesbyforeigncapitalhasbecomethemaininternationaldirectinvestmentwaybyforeigncountries.Chineselistedcompaniesaretheirmainobjects.ExampleAgilent'sacquisitionofIBM'sarrayandchargetestassetscombinesIBM'stechnologyandproductknowledge,itslargeinstalledbase,anditsmarketrecognition.TheacquisitionisbeingintegratedintoAgilent'sHachiojiSemiconductorTestDivision.AgilenthasassumedfullresponsibilityforIBM'swideinstalledbaseofFPDmanufacturersinJapan,TaiwanandKorea,aswellasongoingcommitmentsinapplicationsupport,productsupportandfuturerequirements.FPDmanufacturershavelongunderstoodthevalueofarraytesting,suchaspost-processcostsavings,expeditedyieldramp-upandstabilizationoftheproductionprocess.Movingforward,bybuildinguponthefoundationofbothAgilent'sandIBM'stechnologyandexpertise,AgilentexpectstosetanewindustrystandardforFPDarraytestingintermsofabsolutemeasurementsensitivityandspeed.Theyalsoexpecttodelivertocustomersimprovedmanufacturingprocessesatlowercost-of-test,ultimatelyenablingmoreaffordableFPDproducts.Acquisitionisaneffectiveapproachforenterprisestoenterintoforeignmarkets.Soacquisitioncannotonlyenlargetheclientbaseofcompany,butalsomakeitmorecompetitiveforforeignproductcost.Anditcanalsoprovidemoredistributionchannelsofexportmarket.Qlast:AmericantheoryofHRM----internationalboundaries&‘cultures----Hofstedculturedimensions.人力资源引入:(A)Humanresourcemanagementisthetheory,techniques,methods,andtoolsforstudyingtheadjustmentofpeopleandtheirrelationsintheorganization,connectionbetweenworkanditsrelations,matchingthepeopleandworkinordertofullydevelophumanresourcemanagement,tappeople’spotentials,motivatingpeople,promotingtheworkefficienciesandmeetingtheorganizationalobjectives.AndanotherquotefromTomKeenoyisthatHRM’smainpurposeisto“providealegitimatemanagementideologytofacilitatetheintensificationofwork”.Toachievethisobjective,themeaning,historicaldevelopmentandtheoreticalunderpinningsofHRMareoutlined.Globalizationhaspotentialimplicationsforvirtuallyalloftheresearchneedsanddirectionswealreadyhaveidentified.Today'sincreasinglyglobal,competitivemarketplacehasdrivenconsiderablechangesinlabormarkets,andhastransformedthepracticeofHumanResourceManagement.Expandedmultinationaloperationswithinlargecompanies,combinedwithincreasedtechnologyandcommunicationcapability,haveledtovastdiffusionofglobal“bestpractices”inHRM.引出文化差异现象,提出并分析问题(B)HowevertheCoreofCross-CulturalManagementCulturaldifferencesaffecttheefficiencyoforganizationsthroughpeople’sminds,valuesandbehavior.Itisalsohumans(forexample,themanagers)whoimplementcross-culturalmanagement.Aglobalorganizationneedstounderstandcross-culturaldifferencesbothinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Managingglobalboardsandseniorexecutivecommitteesrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofculturaldifferencesininteractionpatternsandinattitudestowardstime,influence,andproblemsolvingstyles.Generallyspeaking,therearethreeculturaldimensionsdefined:Powerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Inpidualism.AsfarasIknow,themostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmanagersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtotheentitledmoreprivileges.Insuchsituation,itisnotberegardsifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers.Butinthewest,whentheemployeegotdifferentideas,hewillgotodiscusstheproblemwithhisboss.Conflictandmisunderstandingmustoccuriftwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.TheseconddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheuncertaintyavoidancewhichisthelackoftoleranceforriskandtheneedforformalrules.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplacesoanexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Onantherhandtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisk-taking.Butinmostwesterncountries,highjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Theythinkthejobwhentheychangetheirjobs,moreandbetterjobscanbehunted.Andtheycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.Thenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheinpidualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasaninpidualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofself-concernorgroup-concernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighinpidualism.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseinpidualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.Cross-culturalmanagementisafascinatinglycomplexsubject.Crossculturalknowledgeandawarenesscanassistexecutivestoimprovemanagementskills.Moreimportantly,itcanalsohelpbusinessleadersmaketherightstrategicdecisions.TheabovethreedimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonHRM.Internationalmanagersoughttobeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.转贴于免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200809/81894.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

2.经净水器十大品牌立升溯源,在多方长时间的努力下,2018年,从宝应到盐城市区83公里长的主线管道正式通水,意味着盐城市区的居民将从此喝上了长江水,这是具有划时代意义的一项民生工程。

3.

4.规模以上企业占5/6,文化小微企业占跨区域整合企业总数的1/6。

5.依法组建高校资产公司,管理学校的经营性资产,其组织形式可以是《公司法》规定的国有独资公司或法人独资公司。

6.中国青少年发展基金会副秘书长张华伟在致辞中表示,青年是国家的未来,也是世界的未来。

7.这不仅意味着可以节约相对于多部门组织的直接费用,而且可以避免由于管理幅度过宽或管理层次过多而带来的信息传递扭曲、部门之间扯皮和官僚主义等弊端。

8.而“三要素”中人是主要因素,紧紧抓住“人”这个主要因素,努力提高全体员工的安全素质,是做好安全生产的关键,也是实现安全发展的前提。

9.自动驾驶技术是智能汽车决胜的关键点,小米自宣布进军智能电动汽车行业之后,就选择了从技术难度最高的自动驾驶领域切入,采用全栈自研算法,全力研发自动驾驶技术,目前已经取得超预期进展。

10.以2000人的大型企业为例,平均每人每月向员工基金交纳10元,则该基金每年可收入24万元,获得员工基金奖励的经营者自离任后每年可得到6~10万元,直到终身。

本文到此结束,希望对大家有所帮助。

免责声明:本文由用户上传,如有侵权请联系删除!